Monday, 27 June 2016

PUCIT(Punjab University College Of Information Technology) Merit List BS(SE) BS(CS) BS(IT) Fall 2015 and Fall 2016

PUCIT(Punjab University College Of Information Technology) Merit List BS(SE) BS(CS) BS(IT) Fall 2015 and Fall 2016.                                                                Merit List of BS 2015

MorningAfternoon
BSSE(Old Campus)79.51%-76.15%
BSSE(New Campus)78.10%-74.79%
BSCS(Old Campus)78.25%-74.35%
BSCS(New Campus)76.29%-73.61%
BSIT(Old Campus)73.80%-73.44%
BSIT(New Campus)72.30%-71.71%

Merit List of BS 2016

MorningAfternoon
BSSE(Old Campus)81.00%-77.05%
BSSE(New Campus)79.75%-76.03%
BSCS(Old Campus)78.33%-75.52%
BSCS(New Campus)76.58%-74.86%
BSIT(Old Campus)75.57%-73.72%
BSIT(New Campus)75.00%-73.68%

punjab university Registration of Private Candidates for B.A./ B.Sc. Annual Examination 2017

punjab university starts online  Registration of Private Candidates for B.A./ B.Sc. Annual Examination 2017                                                                                                                                       

Small-brained elephant nose fish can think big like humans

The elephantnosed fish has shown an almost mammalian level of sensory discriminationFish may be smarter than we thought. Not only can some recognize human faces, but others can use their senses in a way that it was believed only humans and other mammals could manage. A team of zoologists at the University of Bonn has discovered that, despite lacking a complex brain, the African elephant nose fish can swap between its electrical and visual senses in the same way a person can switch between sight and touch.
The ability to recognize objects across different is senses is regarded as an evolutionary plus because it provides the animal with greater sensory flexibility in different environments. However, it's been thought that this ability was confined to certain highly developed mammals, including monkeys, dolphins, rats, and humans, because the information processing was thought to require a cerebral cortex. That is, until the elephantnose fish came along.
Peters' elephantnose fish (Gnathonemus petersii) is common to the slower rivers of West Africa, where it hunts for insect larvae just before dawn and after sunset. It's also one of a number of fish equipped with an electrical organ that allows it to generate a weak electrical field that allows it to sense its immediate environment like a living motion detector. It also has eyes that it uses to navigate as well as to track and catch its supper.
What the Bonn team found was that the elephantnose can switch between these two senses despite having a tiny brain.
People and animals can navigate a darkened room by touch, hearing, or even smell, and then switch immediately to sight when the lights come on without having to reassess their surroundings. This was thought to require the cerebral cortex of the mammalian brain, but the elephantnose fish doesn't have a cerebral cortex and seems to manage it like a ZX-80 running Windows 10.
To study this phenomenon, the zoologists took 10 fish and taught them how to recognize objects using both their visual and electrical senses. They did this using an aquarium separated into two chambers that held a sphere and a cuboid object. Each fish was introduced to the aquarium and taught to select one or the other object with rewards of larvae.
What the researchers found is that the fish could recognize objects electrically that they had only seen visually, In addition, they favored whichever sense was most reliable at the time with the electrical sense dominating when the object was close up, while vision dominated with distant objects.
The fish were started in the experiments with the lights on, where they could use both senses, then in the dark. With the lights off, the team could see that the fish found their goal, but only at short range – indicating that it was using its electrical sense. The scientists then made the objects electrically invisible, so the fish could use only sight and repeated the experiment.
According to Bonn, statistical analyses showed identical performance as they swapped between vision and electrical impulses. Also, they did it with a consistency that indicates that all elephantnose fish share this talent.
As to why the elephantnose can do this, the Bonn team hasn't speculated, but it could be that the fish uses a specialized algorithm or processing system, the job of sense-swapping is less complex than believed, or fish are just really clever.

Sunday, 26 June 2016

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Triple-brush toothbrush speed cleans your teeth in 10 seconds

The GlareSmile toothbrush makes use of three brushes rather than just oneIf you're using a conventional toothbrush, it takes a few minutes to thoroughly clean your teeth. A new product known as the GlareSmile, however, is aimed at significantly speeding things up. Currently the subject of a Kickstarter crowdfunding campaign, the unusual electric toothbrush is promised to thoroughly clean teeth in as little as 10 seconds.                                                                                                                            Tooth-brushing is a pretty mundane task, but it's the subject of a fair bit of innovation. Just recently, we've seen a product designed specifically to stop bacteria getting at your toothbrush, and heard tell of a new toothpaste that's able to help repair damaged teeth.                                                                                                                                      What makes the GlareSmile interesting is its use of three brushes rather than just one. It provides what the company calls an "automatic" brushing experience, with the user moving it around the mouth, while the triple brush scrubs the base and side surfaces of the teeth with a plaque-removing rotation movement.                                                                                                   Users can pick between different modes when brushing, including a manual setting that allows for speed and pressure adjustments, a sensitive teeth mode that cleans more gently and at a lower speed, and a setting designed specifically for cleaning gums. The brush features a 1.77-in touchscreen which lets you pick between the different modes.
While the brush is suitable for ages five and up, it's fair to say that it would probably be overkill for most people, for whom a standard manual or electric toothbrush will likely do the job. Where the GlareSmile could really be useful is for children, disabled users, and the elderly, who either haven't learned proper brushing technique, or have decreased mobility in their hands.
The device charges via USB as standard, but there's also a solar charger available as an optional extra. The heads can be changed, just like a standard electric toothbrush, meaning that one unit can be used by several people, and the company is offering a charging dock with spaces to hold those extra heads.                                                         It also keeps track of brushing time, the amount of pressure applied and more, with all that data viewable through a companion app, or by plugging the toothbrush into a PC.

CO2 hits record highs over South Pole in hottest May on record

Carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has tipped over the 400 parts per million point at ...It's not something we should be shooting for, but we're on a bit of a hot streak when it comes to global temperatures. Newly released data on the Earth's climate has revealed that 2016 saw the hottest May on record, marking the 13th successive time a monthly global temperature record has been broken as the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, the main reason for this warming trend, hits new levels over the South Pole.
The data released by NASA and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) shows average global temperatures for May over land and ocean surfaces were 0.87° C (1.57° F) higher than the 20th century average of 14.8° C (58.6° F). This surpassed the previous record set in May 2015 by 0.02° C (0.04° F).
Temperature records have tumbled over the past year or so. Across 2015, average global temperatures were 0.76° C (1.4° F) higher than the 20th century average, and a whole degree (1.8° F) higher than the 19th century average. NOAA's records show this is the 13th consecutive month where the mercury has hit new heights for that particular time of year.
A strong El Niño pattern, which allows stored heat to escape from the ocean and influence temperatures and weather patterns, has been a factor in these record-breaking figures, but scientists say that mounting carbon emissions are the underlying reason.
"The state of the climate so far this year gives us much cause for alarm," says David Carlson, Director of the World Climate Research Programme. "Exceptionally high temperatures. Ice melt rates in March and May that we don't normally see until July. Once-in-a-generation rainfall events. The super El Niño is only partly to blame. Abnormal is the new normal."
When it comes to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, 350 parts per million (ppm) is the concentration that experts consider safe. But the continued burning of fossil fuels has pumped so much excess CO2 into the atmosphere that concentration has risen beyond the 400 ppm mark at different monitoring stations around the world. Now, NOAA is reporting that the South Pole is the latest location to be tipped over this symbolic, and dangerous, threshold for the first time in four million years.
"The far Southern Hemisphere was the last place on earth where CO2 had not yet reached this mark," says Pieter Tans, the lead scientist of NOAA's Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network. "Global CO2 levels will not return to values below 400 ppm in our lifetimes, and almost certainly for much longer."

But it is the opposite end of the globe that is really feeling the heat, according to the World Meteorological Organization. It describes the snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere as exceptionally low and reports an earlier than normal annual melting of Arctic sea ice, along with the Greenland ice sheet.
"The rapid changes in the Arctic are of particular concern," says Carlson. "What happens in the Arctic affects the rest of the globe. The question is will the rate of change continue? Will it accelerate? We are in uncharted territory."

Sweden cuts the ribbon on electric highway for trucks

Integrating carbon-friendly power supplies into roadways is an idea loaded with merit, as the considerable global interest in this technology seems to indicate. Working to rid its independent transport sector of fossil fuels by 2030, Sweden has opened up its first electrified highway, which will serve as a testbed for a possible wider deployment in the coming years.
The eHighway is a transport system for electric vehicles that Siemens has been working on for a number of years now. Its deployment in Sweden will cover a two-kilometer (1.24 mi) stretch of public road to the north of Stockholm and will play host to a two-year trial to further the country's shift to a carbon-free road freight industry. It works much like an electric tram system, with power cables running overheard that hook up to the vehicles underneath to provide them with power.
Not only is the system claimed to cut energy consumption by half, but it has the added advantage of reducing local air pollution.
The trial will see two diesel hybrid trucks, which were built by Scania and modified to work with the system, shuttle along the eHighway and use a pantograph mechanism to connect with the overhead wires. Pantograph's are the folding frameworks that connect electric streetcars and trains to their power source.

This connection can take place at speeds of up to 90 km/h (56 mph) and also allows hooked up vehicles to trade energy. So if a truck is braking down a steep incline, for example, this energy can be recovered and fed back into the system for other vehicles to use as they accelerate. And because the trucks work on hybrid drive systems, they can operate as regular vehicles once they steer away from the overhead power lines.
"By far the greatest part of the goods transported in Sweden goes on the road, but only a limited part of the goods can be moved to other traffic types," says Anders Berndtsson, chief strategist at the Swedish Transport Administration. "That is why we must free the trucks from their dependence on fossil fuels, so that they can be of use also in the future. Electric roads offer this possibility and are an excellent complement to the transport system."

YouTube is bringing live broadcasting for all to its mobile apps

YouTube will soon throw open the gates to live broadcasting inside its mobile apps. The mobile live streaming feature will be baked into the iPhone and Android apps, putting it in direct competition with Twitter-owned Periscope and Facebook Live.
The announcement on the YouTube Creator Blog didn't mention a specific launch date. However, the details show a service that is similar to other live platforms, with the ability to allow live chat, make the stream public, and notify subscribers.
youtube live streaming
Just like other live-streaming platforms, YouTube will offer live commentary and the ability to ping your subscriber
Google also proclaimed it would have an inherent superiority with its take on livestreaming thanks to its longstanding ability to host most of the world’s online videos. The live broadcast feature is coming first to YouTube’s more popular creators before it’s made available to all, presumably to work out any issues before the masses can partake. 
Why this matters: Live video has become very popular, most dramatically this week when U.S. House Democrats used Periscope to live broadcast their sit-in to call for a vote on gun safety legislation. With this capability entering the mainstream, YouTube certainly doesn’t want to be left out while rivals Facebook and Periscope take up all the attention. 

Secret behind success of breakaway cancer cells uncovered

The new understanding of metastasis could lead to the development of improved therapies that help slow ...A team of researchers, led by scientists at the Queen Mary University of London, has made a breakthrough in our understanding of how cancer cells are able to spread around the body and form deadly new tumors. The team found that two proteins work together, exhibiting an unusual behavior that helps keep the cells alive.
While our understanding of cancer is constantly improving, and there are numerous promising new treatments in the works, we're still a long way from having a true cure. One of the most difficult aspects of the disease is the way that it's able to move around the body, known as metastasis. Doctors are often able to kill a patient's original tumor, but metastasis causes secondary growths in other parts of the body, making the condition much more difficult to treat.
The problem is that we don't fully understand how cancer cells are actually able to stay alive once they break away from a tumor. When attached to a tumor, they're relatively protected, but when free-floating, they should be more vulnerable to the body's defenses. This new research identifies two molecules central to their survival, providing researchers with new targets for future treatments.
The researchers studied cancer cells in cultures, mice and zebrafish. Carefully watching for changes in the cells, the team spotted a type of molecule, called an integrin, behaving very strangely indeed.
Integrins are proteins that help cancer cells to attach to the network of proteins that surround them, letting them survive and grow. However, the new observations revealed that when the cancer cells break away from a tumor, an intergrin called beta-1 changes. It no longer works to help stick the cell to its surroundings, but instead gets to work inside the cell.
Beta-1 was observed to team up with another protein, known as c-Met, which is central to numerous processes, including embryonic development and wound healing.
Having joined forces, the two proteins make their way to a part of the cell which is normally used to dispose of and recycle cell material. Together, the molecules use the location for a different purpose, sending signals to the rest of the cell that help it resist death while in its more-vulnerable, floating state.
To confirm their observations, the researchers looked at both lung and breast cells, and found that metastases were less likely to form when the two proteins were prevented from getting to the signaling location, or were blocked from joining up inside the cell in the first place. In the long run, the researchers believe that this new understanding could lead to the development of improved therapies that help slow or even prevent the spread of tumors.
"This discovery opens new doors for scientists to try to stop breast cancer spreading and to ultimately save lives, and we look forward to future developments in this exciting area of research," says Delyth Morgan from Breast Cancer Now, one of the organizations that funded the research.

Hubble investigates dark spot on Neptune

The dark spots are vortices in the atmosphere of NeptuneIf Neptune seems a bit blemished of late, it's because NASA has confirmed that a dark spot has shown up in its bluish atmosphere. Observations by the Hubble Space Telescope taken in May show that a dark vortex has appeared in the southern hemisphere. This high-pressure system is accompanied by brighter "companion clouds" and is the first such dark spot to be seen this century.
According to NASA, the dark spot was first detected by amateur astronomers and the Keck Observatory in Hawaii, in July 2015. Though the spot couldn't be seen directly, its bright companion clouds were detected. Because earthbound telescopes lack the necessary resolution, the Hubble was brought in as part of its Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) program, which regularly re-examines the outer Solar System. In September 2015, the space telescope observed a dark spot, which was confirmed by a second observation in May. The new data aided in the generation of high-resolution maps.
The structure of the vortex is similar to those seen by the unmanned Voyager 2 probe during its 1989 flyby of Neptune, and by Hubble in 1994. While the spot is a high-pressure vortex, the companion clouds are believed to be ambient air forced up by the vortex, where methane freezes into reflective ice crystals. As such spots form, they vary in stability as they wander in latitude before breaking up.

"Dark vortices coast through the atmosphere like huge, lens-shaped gaseous mountains," says Mike Wong, who led the team that analyzed the Hubble data. "And the companion clouds are similar to so-called orographic clouds that appear as pancake-shaped features lingering over mountains on Earth."
The space agency says that astronomers are interested in the Neptunian spots because they provide insights into the structure and dynamics of the surrounding atmosphere.

Tuesday, 7 June 2016

AT&T's 5G ambitions expand, adding Middletown, NJ to its trial sites

Just as you were getting used to the power of 4G LTE, the carriers are already looking ahead to a world of 5G cellular connectivity. AT&T announced on Monday that it plans to add Middletown, N.J. to its 5G-based home broadband trials. AT&T previously announced that Austin, Texas would be part of its broadband tests. The trial locations, which could include more cities, will roll out by the end of the summer. AT&T also announced it was partnering with Nokia to expand its 5G lab trial work.
The early trials in various locations are part of AT&T’s efforts to help finalize an international standard for 5G connectivity. AT&T says 3GPP, the international standards organization responsible for 5G, is expected to complete the first phase of setting the 5G standard by 2018.
Why this matters: Unlike the advent of 4G, and 3G before it, the arrival of 5G is about more than faster phones and better movie downloads. The super speeds promised by 5G are expected to help usher in drastic changes in our technological reality including autonomous cars capable of making real-time decisions backed by the cloud. 5G will also power the ever-growing range of smart home devices—the so-called IoT—and possiblycommercial delivery drones dropping packages on your doorstep.

How fast is it?

5G is expected to be anywhere from 10 to 100 times faster than 4G. AT&T says it was able to achieve speeds greater than 10 gigabits per second in early tests, but that is well under the expected 5G speeds ranging from 20 to nearly 80Gbps.
Before we get to our next sci-fi future, however, a lot of hard, boring work must be done, such as deciding how to utilize sub-6Hz and millimeter wave spectrum, and technologies like advanced beamforming. 5G is expected to roll out commercially by 2020.

Latest bionic leaf now 10 times more efficient than natural photosynthesis

Researchers at Harvard have developed a more efficient version of the bionic leaf, which can turn...Over the last few years, great strides have been made in creating artificial leaves that mimic the ability of their natural counterparts to produce energy from water and sunlight. In 2011, the first cost-effective, stable artificial leaves were created, and in 2013, the devices were improved to self-heal and work with impure water. Now, scientists at Harvard have developed the "bionic leaf 2.0," which increases the efficiency of the system well beyond nature's own capabilities, and used it to produce liquid fuels for the first time.
The project is the work of Harvard University's Daniel Nocera, who led the research teams on the previous versions of the artificial leaf, and Pamela Silver, Professor of Biochemistry and Systems Biology at Harvard Medical School.
Like the previous versions, the bionic leaf 2.0 is placed in water and, as it absorbs solar energy, it's able to split the water molecules into their component gases, hydrogen and oxygen. These can be harvested and used in fuel cells to generate electricity, but now, with the help of an engineered bacteria, the hydrogen can be used to produce liquid fuels.
Where this latest device beats the efficiency of previous tests – and nature itself – is down to the catalyst that produces the hydrogen. In earlier versions, the nickel-molybdenum-zinc alloy catalyst used to produce the hydrogen also created reactive oxygen species, which would attack and destroy the bacteria's DNA. As a result, the researchers were forced to run the system at a higher voltage to overcome the issue, which led to a reduction in the overall efficiency.
"For this paper, we designed a new cobalt-phosphorous alloy catalyst, which we showed does not make reactive oxygen species," says Nocera. "That allowed us to lower the voltage, and that led to a dramatic increase in efficiency."
With this new catalyst, the system is able to convert sunlight into biomass with 10 percent efficiency, which is 10 times that of even the most efficient plants. But that's not the only potential application for the technology.
"The beauty of biology is it's the world's greatest chemist — biology can do chemistry we can't do easily," says Silver. "In principle, we have a platform that can make any downstream carbon-based molecule. So this has the potential to be incredibly versatile."
Already, the researchers have demonstrated how the system can be used to create compounds such as isobutanol, isopentanol and PHB, a bio-plastic precursor. Additionally, the catalysts are biologically compatible as they "self heal", so they don't leech material into a solution.
While there is likely more room for further increases in efficiency, the team says it currently works well enough to consider commercial applications. As he discussed in previous years, Nocera's plans for the technology include using it in developing countries as an inexpensive source of renewable energy, which could power individual homes.

Google researchers propose "big red button" for unruly AI

Researchers at Google DeepMind have proposed a method for creating a Artificially intelligent machines rising up to usurp their creators has long been a staple of science fiction, but rapid developments in AI have seen the potential for humans to be relegated to the evolutionary scrapheap become an immediate non-fiction fear for many. With this in mind, researchers at Google DeepMind have devised a "big red button" that would interrupt an AI that looks to be heading down a worrying path, while preventing it from learning to resist such an interruption.
The kill switch intended for an AI that starts "misbehaving" is proposed in a paper written by Laurent Orseau at Google DeepMind and Stuart Armstrong at the Future of Humanity Institute. It relies on the concept of "safe interruptibility," which basically means letting a human safely intercede to stop an AI in its tracks.
The AI discussed work with a process called reinforcement learning, where its behavior is shaped by rewarding its successes, so the AI reads its environment and gradually learns which actions are most likely to lead to further rewards. But like a child, sometimes it won't understand that a course of action could be harmful, either to itself, other people or the environment, and a human supervisor may need to step in and lead it back onto a safer path. This is what the researchers casually refer to as "pressing the big red button."
The example they give is a robot tasked with either sorting boxes inside a warehouse, or going outside to bring boxes in. As the latter is more important, the scientists reward the robot more for that task so it learns to favor that action. But when it rains, the robot will continue to work outside without worrying about being damaged. In this case, a human might have to press the red button, shutting the robot down and carrying it inside.
However, that human intervention changes the environment the robot is operating in, and can lead to two problems: the robot could begin to learn that the scientists want it to stay indoors, meaning it might ignore the more important task. Or, potentially worse, it could still favor the harmful action, and just view the interruption as an obstacle it should try to avoid. In resisting human intervention, the AI could even learn to disable the red button. It's a disturbing thought.
The team's solution is a kind of selective amnesia in the AI programming. Essentially, when scientists have to press the big red button, the robot will continue to operate under the assumption that it will never be interrupted again. So rather than learn that scientists will bring it back inside every time it goes outside, it will still refer back to the reward system to decide how it prioritizes tasks.
Obviously, that doesn't solve the second problem, where it will keep trying a harmful course of action if it thinks it will be rewarded, but the scientists proposed a way around that, too. When human intervention is required, the robot is made to think it decided to change the course of action by itself.
These protocols are less about preventing a robot apocalypse and more about just making sure artificially intelligent machines are learning as efficiently and safely as possible.

Sunday, 5 June 2016

7 Advanced YouTube Marketing Strategies for Bloggers

YouTube Marketing Tips

Online videos are becoming more and more powerful as tools for building your business, and YouTube is still a major player. I used YouTube to build my Biology blog, and now I have 99,374 subscribers!
So one day I got an email from someone at YouTube. He told me that my channel had been growing and that I could be eligible for a free one-to-one consultation to help me grow even further.
His advice was so great, I just couldn’t keep it to myself! So here are some top tips, straight from the source, to help you market your business on YouTube.

1. Have a Consistent Upload Schedule      My contact at YouTube told me that this is the most important thing you can do to help your business grow. It’s something that I advocate all the time, too!   A consistent upload schedule helps your audience know what to expect and gets them to look forward to your content. You can train your audience to plan on new content at regular intervals, and that’s exactly what you want!My contact at YouTube told me that this is the most important thing you can do to help your business grow. It’s something that I advocate all the time, too!

But here’s the thing: you don’t just need a consistent upload schedule, you need to advertise it in as many places as possible. Over-communicate your schedule to your audience so there’s no way they can miss it.
You can let people know your upload schedule in the video channel banner, in the about section, in the video description, at the end of the video, in your cards and annotations—anywhere you can think of. Let the world know when you’ll be uploading your content!

2. Have a Channel Trailer


A channel trailer is what people will see when they visit your channel, but they aren’t subscribed yet. You want to help these people suffering from “unsubscriptionitis” (it’s cheesy, but I like it!). Encourage them to subscribe with your channel trailer. Hook them into your content by highlighting your best videos. Keep it short and sweet, but point them to where they can see your best content.A channel trailer is what people will see when they visit your channel, but they aren’t subscribed yet. You want to help these people suffering from “unsubscriptionitis” (it’s cheesy, but I like it!). Encourage them to subscribe with your channel trailer.
Use annotations to send them to top videos and playlists, too. Together, we can cure unsubscriptionitis!
What are annotations? They’re ways for viewers to interact with your content—but they don’t work on mobile devices. Which brings us to the next point…

3. Use Cards


People are spending more and more time accessing video content on their phones and tablets. My YouTube contact told me that the average viewing session on a mobile device is now more than 40 minutes. That’s up over 50% from a year ago! So it’s super important to be reaching your audience on mobile devices.
Cards are like annotations, but they work across desktop and mobile devices.
So how does a card work? If you’re watching a video on your mobile device, a little icon with an eye in it will pop up at the top of the screen. If you click that icon, cards will pop up over the video with extra information in them.
Using cards, you can link to other videos, playlists, your website, your blog, your fan funding page (like Patreon)…the possibilities are endless.
Cards are a great way for your audience to interact with the content and for you to enhance the experience that you’re creating for them.

4. Use a Branding Watermark


As you know, subscriptions are really important, because your subscribers get notified every time you post new content. So when I upload a new video to my biology channel on YouTube, almost 100,000 people immediately know about it.
A branding watermark is a logo or a picture that appears at the bottom right of your video. It allows you to increase engagement in a different way: if a viewer hovers over the watermark, they can click to subscribe to your channel right then and there.
What’s great about a branding watermark is that it stays with your video and shows up on other websites. So if someone else thinks your video is awesome and embeds it in their blog, your watermark will still be there. This means that anyone viewing your video on that other blog can hover over the watermark and immediately click to subscribe to your channel.
So how do you get a branding watermark? Go into your channel settings, enable the branding watermark, and then upload the image you want to use.

5. Use Custom Thumbnails


Why is this important? According to my YouTube contact, 90% of the best-performing videos on YouTube have custom thumbnails. That’s huge!
You don’t have this option everywhere you want to upload a video, but YouTube allows you to customize your thumbnail.
A custom thumbnail increases your click through rate (CTR) because it catches people’s attention. So how do you make sure that your custom thumbnail does its job? Here are the best practices for creating a custom thumbnail:
Make sure it’s clear, in focus, and a relatively high resolution (640px x 360px minimum).
Keep it to a 16:9 aspect ratio (basically, widescreen!).
Make sure it’s bright, high contrast, well-framed, and visually compelling. Look at the top-rated videos on YouTube for ideas—you’ll notice that almost all of them have really exciting custom thumbnails.
Think about it even before you shoot the video. What do you need to communicate to your audience through the thumbnail?
Check that it’s clear and consistent across devices. For example, text might look great on a desktop but terrible on a mobile device, so use a bigger font or go for a powerful image instead.
Visually reinforce the video title with your thumbnail. Consistency encourages clicks!
Make sure the thumbnail is an accurate reflection of the video content. How annoying is it when you think a video is going to be exactly what you need, only to find out that it doesn’t deliver what the title and thumbnail promised? That’s a great way to get a lot of dislikes. Don’t do it! The thumbnail, the title, and your branding on the channel should all work together to deliver the content that your viewers expect.

Ways to Analyse and Improve Your Channel

There’s so much more to YouTube’s analytics than the numbers. My contact showed me some great ways to analyse your reports so that you can make informed decisions about when to upload content, how to structure or re-structure your videos, what kind of content you should be creating, and how to use your annotations. Here are four different reports that you can take advantage of:

Watch Time Report

The watch time report tells you when people are viewing your content.
On my biology channel, the report told me that more people watch at the beginning of the week. Since I haven’t uploaded a video in a long time, my YouTube contact said that I’m naturally getting more viewership at the start of the week rather than at the weekend.
What does this tell me? Well it can help me decide when I should be uploading new content! Based on my Watch Time Report, Monday would be a good day to upload new videos.
By the way, YouTube marketers think that watch time is really, really important. If your channel has lots of watch time, that’s keeping people on YouTube for longer. Obviously, they want people to stick around on their site, so if you’ve got high watch time, YouTube will start to rank your videos higher.
So it’s super important to ask yourself: when are viewers engaging with your videos the most?

Audience Retention Report


Keep in mind that—for better or for worse—people’s attention spans are getting shorter and shorter. On YouTube, you can jump straight into the content because your title and your custom thumbnail already tell people what to expect from your video.
You can use audience retention data to make decisions about the flow of your videos.
When he looked at my biology channel, my YouTube contact saw that I had a high dropoff rate at the start of some videos. When he looked at those videos in detail, he could see that I was using a long introduction that basically just repeated the video title.
Check your Audience Retention Report to find out when and how you’re losing viewers. This empowers you to make changes to the structure of your videos.

Traffic Sources Report


In my case, a high number of people are finding me through searches for specific topics. My YouTube contact said this wasn’t a surprise, because my content is highly valuable and discoverable. Awesome!
How are people finding your videos? The Traffic Sources Report can help you find out.
Here’s the tip he gave me, though: you can use the “YouTube search” data to see the terms that people are using to find you and your content. That’s an indication of the content that people are most interested in. On my channel, people are mostly searching for videos on the cardiovascular system, so that tells me I should be making more videos on that topic.
Digging deep into these analytics helps you to make decisions about what kind of content you should be uploading.

Annotations Report


That means that when people click on your video, they shouldn’t be clicking again to leave your video too quickly.
My YouTube contact says that, as a rule of thumb, your CTR (click through rate) should always be higher than your close through rate.
My report showed that certain videos on my channel had a high close through rate. When my YouTube contact looked at those videos in detail, he could see that I was introducing the videos by offering viewers a link straight to my Interactive Biology Blog. Basically, I was giving them an opportunity to leave the video before they’d even watched it.
Don’t do that!
Don’t encourage your viewers to click away before they’ve even seen the content. Show them the value of your video before you give them a chance to click away. Give them the value first!

New rules would make CEO Mark Zuckerberg lose control of Facebook if he quits

Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg would lose majority voting control of the social networking company if he quits his job or his services are terminated, according to new rules proposed by the board.
The rules, which were first mooted as part of a reclassification of Facebook’s shares to help meet Zuckerberg’s philanthropy plans, will be voted on by shareholders at an annual meeting on June 20. The aim of the regulations is apparently to make it easier for the company to hire a top-quality successor to Zuckerberg, who would not be shadowed by the founder or be from his family. 
The measure seems to be more of a precaution as Zuckerberg has not indicated that he intends quitting his job.
The high-profile executive currently holds Class A and Class B common stock that collectively represents about 53.8 percent of the company’s total outstanding voting power. Under current rules, if Zuckerberg were to quit the company or his employment terminated for any reason, he would not be required to give up his majority voting control. Zuckerberg would also be able to pass Class B common stock shares, and potentially his majority voting control, to his descendants after his death, leading to voting control of the company passing across multiple generations, according to a regulatory filing Thursday by the company to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
Class A stock has one vote per share while Class B stock has 10 votes per share.
A Special Committee, appointed in August to look into the reclassification of Facebook’s capital or voting structure in view of Zuckerberg’s long-term plans to donate most of his stock to philanthropy, has recommended new terms that will ensure that Facebook “will not remain a founder-controlled company after we cease to be a founder-led company,” according to the proxy filing.
The committee and the board hold that it would be tougher to attract a qualified successor to Zuckerberg if he continued to retain majority voting control of the company. To avoid Zuckerberg having voting control of the company if he leaves his post, the committee has proposed new automatic triggers, which, with some exceptions, “require the conversion of all shares of Class B common stock into shares of Class A common stock if he is no longer in a leadership role at our company.”
The triggers would “provide significant value to our company by incenting Mr. Zuckerberg to remain with our company,” according to the filing.
Zuckerberg announced in December that he would give to philanthropy, through the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, 99 percent of his shares in the company. The CEO is said to have informed the committee that he planned to sell or gift no more than US$1 billion of the company’s capital stock each year for the next three years, and that he aimed to retain his majority voting position for the foreseeable future.
In a regulatory filing earlier this year, Facebook said that it aimed to create a new class of publicly listed, but non-voting Class C capital stock and, if approved, to issue a one-time dividend of two shares of that new class of capital stock for each outstanding Class A and Class B share held by stockholders.
The reasoning was that the Class C shares could be used for Zuckerberg’s initial philanthropy aims without he losing control of the company, as the Class C stock would be non-voting shares. “The issuance of shares of Class C capital stock could prolong the duration of Mr. Zuckerberg's control of our voting power and his ability to elect all of our directors and to determine the outcome of most matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders,” according to the filing on Thursday. Zuckerberg is also likely to have the final say during the shareholder vote on June 20.

How to add a Hibernate option to the Windows 10 Start menu

windows 10 hp aioAt the end of every day do you still dutifully close every file and program window before shutting down your PC? That’s the standard way to handle things, but for quite a few versions of Windows, Microsoft has also offered the ability to use Sleep and Hibernate modes instead of just a regular shut down.
In Windows 10, however, Microsoft decided not to include hibernate with the rest of the shut down options under Start > Power by default. The good news is it’s easy to put the option back.

Why hibernate?

powerhibernate
A hibernate option in Windows 10 under Start > Power.
Hibernation is kind of a mix between a traditional shut down and sleep mode primarily designed for laptops. When you tell your PC to hibernate, it saves the current state of your PC—open programs and documents—to your hard disk and then turns off your PC. Then when it’s time to start it up again all your previous work is ready and waiting for you.
Unlike sleep mode, it doesn’t use any power, but it does take longer to start up again.

Setting it up 

To add Hibernate to Start > Power, click on the Cortana/search box in the taskbar and type power options. The first result you see should be a Control Panel setting of the same name. Click on that.
choosewhatpowerbuttonsdo
Click on Choose what the power buttons do on the left.
Once the Control Panel opens, select Choose what the power buttons do from the left-hand navigation panel.
changesettings
Next, click the link at the top of the window.
Then at the top of the next screen click on the link that says Change settings that are currently unavailable.
hibernate
Now you can add Hibernate to your power options under the Start menu.
Now scroll down to the bottom and under Shutdown settings click the checkbox next toHibernate. Next, click Save changes and you’re done.
Go to Start > Power and you should now see Hibernate among all the rest of the shut-down options.

A new WordPress plug-in exploit endangers thousands of websites

Over the past few days, attackers have been exploiting an unpatched vulnerability in WP Mobile Detector, a WordPress plug-in installed on over 10,000 websites.
The plug-in’s developer fixed the flaw Tuesday in version 3.6, but in addition to updating immediately, users should also check if their websites haven’t already been hacked.
The vulnerability is located in a script called resize.php script and allows remote attackers to upload arbitrary files to the Web server. These files can be backdoor scripts known as Web shells that provide attackers with backdoor access to the server and the ability to inject code into legitimate pages.
The flaw was discovered by WordPress security outfit PluginVulnerabilities.com after it observed requests for the wp-content/plugins/wp-mobile-detector/resize.php even though it didn’t exist on its server. This indicated that someone was running an automated scan for that specific file, likely because it had a flaw.
Researchers from Web security firm Sucuri have analyzed the company’s firewall logs and discovered exploitation attempts since May 27, four days before the patch was released. It’s possible that attackers have known about the exploit even before that date.
WP Mobile Detector, which shouldn’t be confused with a different unaffected plug-in called WP Mobile Detect, used to have more than 10,000 active installations at the beginning of May. Now it has around 2,000, but after the exploit was discovered, the plug-in was briefly removed from the WordPress.org plug-ins directory.
According to Plugin Vulnerabilities there is a limiting factor: in order for this flaw to be exploitable, the allow_url_fopen feature needs to be enabled on the server.
Since it’s not clear how many websites have been hacked, it’s a good idea for WordPress website owners who use this plug-in to check their servers for signs of compromise.
“At this moment the majority of the vulnerable sites are infected with porn spam doorways,” Sucuri researcher Douglas Santos said in a blog post. “You can usually find the gopni3g directory in the site root, that contains story.php (doorway generator script), .htaccess and subdirectories with spammy files and templates.”